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Large craters will have a central peak formed by the rock beneath the impact point rebounding upward and they may also have terracing of the inner walls of the crater from the collapsing of the crater rim inward.The size of the craters having central peaks depends on the gravity of the planet or moon: on the Moon craters larger than about 60 kilometers in diameter have central peaks while the crater diameter on the Earth needs to be larger than just 1 to 3 kilometers.If you download the full-resolution version of this picture from the link on the picture, you will be able to see the rover, Opportunity next to the top left crater rim.Volcanism is any eruption of molten lava onto the surface.
At such speeds, the projecticle explodes on impact and carves out a round bowl-shaped depression on the surface. How can you distinguish an impact crater from a volcanic crater?It is noteworthy that about the time the heavy bombardment ended, life took hold.The oldest fossil evidence of ancient organisms dates back to 3.5 billion years ago and evidence for biological activity based on isotopic ratios of carbon date back to about 3.85, even up to 4.2 billion years ago, though the carbon isotope ratio evidence is controversial. Links to external sites will be displayed in another window. Select the photographs to display the original source in another window.
The heavy bombardment of about 3.8 billion years ago must be taken into account when using the crater age dating technique.